Reptiles – Near Threatened
Sispara day gecko (Cnemaspis sisparensis)
It is a large gecko which dwells usually in forests, it is largely insectivorous and
Distribution – Endemic to Western Ghats, and found in Sispara, Nilgiris, Kavalai near
Threats – Habitat conversion and modification.
Critically Endangered – Fish
The Pondicherry Shark (Carcharhinus hemiodon)
It is a marine fish which occurs inshore on continental and insular shelves.
Very rare and little-known species.
Habitat/distribution – Indian Ocean – from Gulf of Oman to Pakistan, India and possibly
Also been recorded at the mouth of the Hooghly river.
Threats – Large, expanding, and unregulated commercial fisheries in inshore localities
- Its populations are considered to have been severely depleted as a result of
The Ganges Shark (Glyphis gangeticus)
It is a uniquely adapted fish-eating shark.
The small eyes suggest that it is adapted to living in turbid water, while the slender
teeth of the species suggest that it is primarily a fish-eater.
Habitat/distribution – It occurs in India and possibly in Pakistan. The Ganga river system
and Hooghly river mouth are its known habitats.
Threats – Major fisheries targeting sharks.
- o Other probable threats – overfishing, pollution, increasing river use and
construction of dams and barrages.
o A few jaws of the species were found to have been traded in the international
market during recent years, which testifies that the species is not extinct.
The Knife-tooth Sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata)
- It has a long narrow snout with blade-like teeth and a shark-like body.
Distribution – Widespread in western part of the Indo-Pacific region, including Red Sea. Found in – shallow coastal waters and estuaries Can withstand a range of salinity conditions
- Threats – Principal threat to all sawfish are fisheries. Their long tooth studded saw,
makes them extraordinarily vulnerable to entanglement in any sort of net gear.
- When sawfish are caught in by catch, they often end up being traded because of the
very high value of their products (meat is high quality and fins and saws extremely
valuable in international trade).
Large-tooth Sawfish (Pristis microdon)
Have short but massive saw.
It is seen seasonally and very occasionally caught along with the Bull Sharks and the
Habitat/distribution and habitat – Western part of the Indo-Pacific (East Africa to New
Guinea, Philippines and Vietnam to Australia).
In India – Mahanadi river and very common in estuaries of the Ganga and Brahmaputra.
Threats – Increasing demand for sawfish in aquaria. Principal threat to all sawfish are
fisheries. Their long tooth studded saw, makes them extraordinarily vulnerable to
entanglement in any sort of net gear.
Major habitat changes include construction of dams over rivers, siltation, pollution from
industries and mining.
Long-comb Sawfish or Narrow-snout Sawfish (Pristis zijsron)
Heavily exploited by humans.
Found in shallow water.
It inhabits muddy bottoms and also enters estuaries.
Habitat / distribution and habitat – Indo-Pacific region including Australia, Cambodia,
China, India, Indonesia and Malaysia.
Threats – This species has been damaged intensively, both as a target species and as
incidental by catch in commercial, sport or shark-control net fisheries, as well as for
Spiders – Critically Endangered
Only found in India.
The species is semi-social, which means they live partly in groups.
Habitat – Arboreal and tend to live in hiding.
Distribution – Endemic to India.
Spread along the coastal savannah, tropical lowland rain forests and montane forests.
Threats – habitat alteration and degradation.
Gooty Tarantula, Metallic Tarantula or Peacock Tarantula (Poecilotheria Metallica)
Steel blue in color with patches of intense orange-yellow, black and white.
In great demand in the illegal pet trade.
Habitat – Wooded mountain area.
Distribution – Endemic to South India
Threats – one of the most expensive spiders in the illegal pet trade. Habitat degradation
due to local fuel wood collection, increased human pressures have made this species
Corals – Critically Endangered
Fire corals (Millepora boschmai)
More closely related to jellyfish than corals. On contact, one usually feels a burning·
sensation similar to a sting from a jellyfish.
Scientific name derived from several yellow green or brown color small pores on the
surface of corals.
Habitat – found in murky inshore waters and display tolerance for siltation. They often
are found in clear offshore sites.
Distribution – Indonesia, Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama Pacific Province. Possibly extinct from
Australia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Panama, Singapore and Thailand.
Threats – Collected for decoration and jewellery trade.
- Sensitive to temperature rise.
- Completely disappeared from the majority of marine areas possibly because of growing global warming related bleaching effects.
Migration refers to the regular, recurrent and cyclical seasonal movement of birds
from one place to other.
The distance of migration can be small or long.
But at the end of the period the bird will eventually return to original place.
Reasons for migration
1. To avoid adverse factors (extreme climatic condition)
2. To manage food shortage
3. To manage shortage of water
4. To have a better breeding conditions
5. Less competition for safe nesting places
Migratory birds of India
|Winter birds||Summer birds|
Common Teal, Yellow
Wagtail, White Wagtail,
Rosy Pelican, Wood
Pigeon, Black Tailed
Blue throat, Long Billed
Black Crowned Night
Comb Duck, Blue
Cheeked Bee Eater,
|Diseases||Casual organism||Animal susceptible|
|Tuberculosis||Mycobacterium spp||Deer, cat, primates,|
|Anthrax||Bacillus anthraxis||Gaur, cheetal, wild pig,|
|Rabies||Rabies virus||Tiger, lion, bear,|
|Foot and outh disease||FMD virus||Gaur, nilgai, chetal,|
sambar, yak, mithun
|RInder pest||MIcrobilli virus||Deer, wild pig, wild|
|Trypanosomia||Trypanosomia virus||Tiger, elephant, sambar,|
|Taxoplasmosis||Taxoplasmagondii||Rhesus macaque, civet|