Paris, COP 21
It is dealing with greenhouse gases emissions mitigation, adaptation and finance
It will start in the year 2020
Agreement on treaty was negotiated by representatives of 195 countries at the 21st COP
of the UNFCCC in Paris
- o Adopted on 12 December 2015
o 178 UNFCCC members signed the treaty, 18 of which ratified it
o But it had not entered into force.(condition for entry covered later)
in Article 2, “enhancing the implementation” of the UNFCCC through:
“(a) Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above preindustrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above
pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts
of climate change;
(b) Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster
climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does
not threaten food production;
(c) Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas
emissions and climate-resilient development.”
Countries furthermore aim to reach “global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon
Nationally Determined Contributions and their limits
Contribution that each individual country should make in order to achieve the worldwide
Article 3 requires them to be “ambitious”, “represent a progression over time” and set
“with the view to achieving the purpose of this Agreement”.
Contributions should be reported every five years and are to be registered by the
Countries can cooperate and pool their nationally determined contributions.
The ‘contributions’ themselves are not binding
No mechanism to force a country to set a target in their NDC by a specific date and no
enforcement if a set target in an NDC is not met.
There will be only a “name and shame” system.
Global stock take
Implementation of the agreement by all member countries together will be evaluated every 5
years, with the first evaluation in 2023.
The stock take will not be of contributions/achievements of individual countries but a
collective analysis of what has been achieved and what more needs to be done.
‘Bottom up’ structure in contrast to most international environmental law treaties which are
‘top down’, characterized by standards and targets set internationally, for states to implement.
Signature and entry into force
It will enter into force (and thus become fully effective) only if 55 countries that produce
at least 55% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list produced in
2015) ratify, accept, approve or accede to the agreement.
Parties and signatories
India had signed and ratified the agreement. It is the 61st country to do so.
As of 24 June 2016, 177 states and the European Union have signed the Agreement. 18 of those
states have ratified the Agreement.
USA + China = 40% of emissions
Other mechanisms of UNFCCC
Special climate change Fund
The Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) was established under the Convention in 2001
to finance projects relating to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building;
energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic
The Global Environment Facility (GEF), as an operating entity of the Financial
Mechanism, has been entrusted to operate the SCCF.
Finance mechanism for CC
The Financial resources that have been made available to Non-Annex I parties to the UNFCCC
consist of the following three modules –
The “National Communications Module”
This module presents information communicated by Annex II Parties on the provision of .
financial resources related to the implementation of the Convention through their fourth and
fifth national communications.
In COP15 – developed countries pledged to provide new and additional resources,
including forestry and investments. This collective commitment has come to be known
as ‘fast-start finance’.
COP 17 Parties welcomed the fast-start finance provided by developed countries as part
of their collective commitment to provide, new and additional resources approaching
USD 30 billion for the period 2010 -2012, and noted the information provided by
developed country parties on the fast-start finance they have provided and urged them to continue to enhance the transparency of their reporting on the fulfillment of their
fast-start finance commitments.
The “Funds Managed by the GEF module”
It is a joint effort between the secretariat of the UNFCCC and the secretariat of the GEF (Global