National wildlife action plan (NWAP)
- 1st NWAP – 1983.
- 2nd NWAP – 2002
- 3rd NWAP (drafted) – 2016
- Who adopted it – Indian board for wildlife.
- What it does – it had strategies and plan for wildlife conservation.
- Need – mainly to conserve the biodiversity which was declining because of increased
commercial use of natural resources, the continued growth of human and livestock
Features of draft
For period – 2017-2031
Focus – 17 key areas (from an integration of climate change into wildlife planning,
conservation of coastal and marine ecosystems to wildlife health.
- Rehabilitation of threatened species
- Conserving their habitats like inland aquatic, coastal and marine ecosystems.
Protection of protected areas
- It includes a ban on certain activities, regulation on tourism and law enforcement.
Ban on certain activities
- Mining, irrigation projects to be not permitted in protected areas and wildlife
| Tourism|Encourages tourism in wildlife areas with the restriction on no. of tourists and vehicles to be allowed in protected areas. Strict monitoring and regulation of tourism activities.
| Law enforcement|Setup new – regional forensic laboratories, special tiger protection force and special courts to fight from wildlife crimes like poaching and smuggling.
Strategy for action
1. Neglect of Wildlife living outside the forests
- Wolves, great Indian bustards, hyenas, leopards, tigers, elephants which lives
outside the forests are ignored.
2. Regulation of technology
- Ethical and social consequences of using drones and camera traps. (violates the
privacy of local people living in protected areas is ignored)
3. The issue of feral dogs and cats
- 1st national policy which acknowledges the damages caused by the feral dogs and
cats in the wildlife habitats but remained silent on suggestive measures which need
to be taken to address the issue.
4. Invasion of exotic species
- Inventory and mapping of species and area cause delay implementation of national
policy to check invasion of exotic species.
5. Duration of plan
- 14 years’ period is very long and it must be kept shorter to absorb the contemporary
realities and scientific advances.
National afforestation and eco-development board (NAEB)
- By – MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forests) in August 1992.
- It is responsible for promoting afforestation, tree planting, ecological restoration and
eco-development activities in the country, with special attention to the degraded forest areas and lands adjoining the forest areas, national parks, sanctuaries, and other protected areas as well as the ecologically fragile areas like the Western Himalayas,
Aravallis, Western Ghats, etc.
National Afforestation Programme (NAfP)
It involves plantation in degraded forests of the country.
Flagship scheme of NAEB.
Launched in – 2002.
It provides physical and capacity building support to the Forest Development Agencies
Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority
- It seeks to provide an appropriate institutional mechanism, both at the Centre and in
each State and Union Territory, to ensure expeditious utilization inefficiently and
a transparent manner of amounts realized in lieu of forest land diverted for non-forest
the purpose which would mitigate the impact of diversion of such forest land.
- In 2000, SC had found that the funds under CAMPA are not utilized by states and so the funds are centrally pooled under Compensatory Afforestation Fund.
- SC had set up the National Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (National CAMPA) to manage the Fund.
- In 2009, State CAMPAs were setup by states, that receive 10% of funds form National CAMPA to use for afforestation and forest conservation.
- In 2013, CAG report – funds continued to be underutilized.
- The Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill 2015 was introduced by the government in Lok Sabha in 2015 to regulate collected funds. The bill was sent for examination under a standing committee while Rajya Sabha has passed it on 28 July 2016.
| Establishment of National Compensatory Afforestation Fund under the Public Account|
| Establishment of State Compensatory Afforestation Fund under the Public Account of|
| Payments into the funds include compensatory afforestation, NPV (Net Present Value),|
|reforestation and any project-specific payments.|
10% of funds collected will go to the National Fund and the remaining 90% will go to
respective State Fund.
Utilization of collected funds will be for afforestation, regeneration of forest ecosystem,
wildlife protection and infrastructure development.
Establishment of National and State Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management
and Planning Authorities to manage the funds.
The fund will be under the public account of India.
TSR Subramanian panel has recommended that the ratio of plantation against diversion
of the forest should increase to 2:1 then present 1:1.
Joint Forest Management
It is the regeneration and conservation of forests through involvement of village
communities in association with the state forest departments.
It develops partnership between forest and fringe communities of mutual trust.
It also defines the roles and responsibilities with regard to forest protection and
Financial support to JFM activities – it came from other sources in different states such
as World Food Programme (WFP), Hariyali Yojana, District Rural Development Agency
(DRDA), Tribal Development Schemes, externally aided projects, etc.
It started in consonance with the National Forest Policy 1988, which has recognized the
importance of involving the local communities.
Most of states have adopted the JFM.
Both forest departments and local communities form committee to manage and protect
the forest by sharing the cost and benefits.
To form committee, the initiative is taken by forest departments.
NGOs are also involved for capacity building, information dissemination, monitoring
and evaluationin these participatory institutions.
Key objective – rehabilitation of degraded forestlands with people’s participation
involving Forest Protection Committees.
It’s a win-win situation for both forest department and local community in terms of
greater access to minor forest produces from these regenerated forests.