Marine Mammals – Endangered and Vulnerable
Marine Mammals - Endangered and Vulnerable

Marine Mammals – Endangered and Vulnerable

Marine Mammals – Endangered

Freshwater/river dolphin

Habitat/distribution – India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin and Indus river dolphin.

I. Ganges river dolphin

Habitat/distribution – Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers and their tributaries in
Bangladesh, India and Nepal.
Our national aquatic animal.

II. Indus River dolphin

Other names – Indus River Dolphin, Indus Blind Dolphin, side-swimming dolphin
Habitat/Distribution – lndus river in Pakistan and its Beas and Sutlej tributaries.
Population declining.
Very adversely affected by human use of the river systems
Status – endangered.
Threats – Reduced prey base because of reckless fishing, Deforestation (cause
sedimentation in river), construction of cross-river structures such as dams and barrages and water pollution.

Marine Mammals – Vulnerable


Also known as Sea cow.
Threat – hunting (meat and oil), habitat degradation, and fishing-related fatalities.
Dugongs are cousins of manatees and share a similar plump appearance, but have a
dolphin fluke-like tail.
Unlike manatees, which use freshwater areas, the dugong is strictly a marine mammal.
Dugongs graze peacefully on sea grasses


Manatees are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals.
Habitat – India seas [near shore waters of Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kachchh and Andaman
and Nicobar Islands], Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, the Amazon Basin, and West Africa
Threat – Coastal development, red tide, hunting.
They use freshwater areas.
Dugongs are cousin of Manatees.

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