Mammals – Vulnerable
The gaur (Bos gaurus), also called Indian bison, is a large bovine native to South Asia
and Southeast Asia.
Largely confined to evergreen forests or semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests,
but also occur in deciduous forest areas at the periphery of their range.
The domesticated form of the gaur, Bos frontalis, is called gayal or mithun.
Threats – poaching for trade to supply international markets, hunting, and specific
hunting for home consumption.
2. Great Indian one horn Rhinoceros
Habitat – Found only in the tall grasslands and forests in the foothills of the Himalayas.
National Parks – Kaziranga National Park, pabitora wildlife sanctuary, Manas National
Status in the Wild – Endangered
Threat – Oriental belief that its horn, among other parts, has medicinal properties.
3. Four-horned antelope, Chousingha
The four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis), or chousingha, is a small antelope
found in India and Nepal.
They must drink water regularly in order to survive.
Distribution – Mostly occur in open, dry, deciduous forests in hilly terrain. Mudumalai
National Park, Gir National Park and foothills of the Himalayas in the north to the
Deccan Plateau in the south.
Threats – loss of its natural habitat due to agricultural expansion and hunting.
It is protected under Schedule I the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972
The takin, also called cattle chamois or gnu goat, is a goat-antelope found in the
Distribution – Mountainous regions in the Himalayan Mountains (Dihang-Dibang
Biosphere Reserve, Arunachal pradesh) and western China.
Threats – Largely due to overhunting and the destruction of their natural habitat.
5. Nilgiri marten
Endemic to the Western Ghats.
Inhabits areas that are far from human disturbance
Threat – habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting for its fur.
Only species of marten found in southern India
6. Barasingha or swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii)
The barasingha, also called swamp deer, is a deer species distributed in the Indian
Habitat/distribution – Kanha National Park of Madhya Pradesh, Assam, and Uttar
Threats – Hunting for horns, habitat fragmentation and habitat loss.
7. Oriental small-clawed otter/ Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea)
Otter – any of 13 living species of semiaquatic mammals which feed on fish and shellfish,
and also other invertebrates, amphibians, birds and small mammals.
Smallest otter species in the world.
Lives in – mangrove swamps and freshwater wetlands.
Geographic distribution – Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka,
Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
Threat – habitat loss, pollution and hunting.
8. Clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)
Habitat/distribution – Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China,
They occur in northern West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya,
Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura.
Threat – deforestation and poaching.
9. Asian black bear/ moon beat or white-chested bear (Ursus thibetanus)
Also known as moon bear, Asiatic black bear and white-chested bear
Medium-sized species of bear, largely adapted for arboreal life.
Habitat/distribution – seen across much of the Himalayas, Korea, northeastern China,
the · Russian far east and the Honshu and Shikoku islands of Japan.
Threat – deforestation and active hunting for its body parts.
Conservation – Under schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act