Mammals – Endangered

1. Dhole/ Asiatic wild dog or Indian wild dog (Cuon alpinus)

India contains the largest numbers of Dholes.
Geographic range – High populations in the Western Ghats and central Indian forests.
The Eastern Ghats have low population. Dholes are also found in the northeastern states but
decreasing in this region due to a decreasing prey base and retaliatory killings from livestock predation. Other places – Terai region, Sikkim, Tso Kar in Ladakh.
Threats – Depletion of prey base, Habitat loss, and transformation, Persecution (retaliatory killings due to livestock predation), Disease and pathogens

2. Eld’s deer/ thamin or brow-antlered deer (Pantolia eldii)

Indigenous to South Asia.
Distribution – Keibul Lamjao National park, Manipur
Threats – poaching, hunting for food, development activities
The species have a fragmented distribution and are therefore at risk from inbreeding
and loss of genetic variation.

3. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens)

Earlier in the vulnerable category but now in Endangered category
The population has plausibly declined by 50% over the last three generations.
Geographic range – Sikkim, West Bengal, and Arunachal Pradesh
Threats – habitat loss and fragmentation, habitat degradation, and physical threats.
o They all are compounded by the region’s increasing human population, climate
change, natural disasters, inadequate enforcement of laws and regulations,
mostly low political will and interest, political instability (in some regions), transboundary issues facilitating poaching, illegal collection of non-timber forest
products, and Red Panda trade (skins and other body parts) and the movement
of cattle herders/grazers during the breeding season.

4. Himalayan Brown /Red Bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus)

Moved to the critically endangered category.

5. Golden langur (Trachypithecus geei)

Primate is an Old World monkey
Distribution – a small region of western Assam and in the neighboring foothills of the
Black Mountains of Bhutan.
Status – endangered.

6. Himalayan / White-bellied Musk Deer

Habitat/distribution – Kashmir, Kumaon and Sikkim.
They lack antlers, but they possess a pair of enlarged canines that grow continuously.
Status – endangered
Threat – poaching & illegal trade for its musk
o Deer musk is a substance with a persistent odor obtained from a gland of the male musk deer (Only males produce the musk). The substance has been used as a perfume fixative, incense material, and medicine.

7. Hispid hare/ Assam rabbit (Caprolagus hispidus)

Habitat/distribution – southern foothills of the central Himalayas.
Status – endangered.
Habitat – highly fragmented due to increasing agriculture, flood control, and human

8. Hog deer

Status – endangered
Habitat/distribution – northern India.
Why it is named so? The hog deer runs through the forests with its head hung low (hoglike manner) so that it ducks under obstacles instead of leaping over them as most other deer do.

9. Lion-tailed macaque/ wanderoo (Macaca silenus)

Endemic to the Western Ghats.
Status – endangered.
Avoid human presence.
Do not live, feed or travel through plantations.
Habitat – southwest India in pockets of evergreen forests, called sholas, in the Western
Ghats range. Today, they only live in mountain forests scattered across 3 Indian states –
Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.
Threat – habitat fragmentation due to spread of agriculture and tea, coffee, teak and
cinchona, construction of water reservoirs and human settlements to support such
Captive breeding – aringnar anna zoological park, Chennai and in Mysore Zoo.

10. Markhor (Capra falconeri)

Moved to Near threatened

11. Nilgiri langur/ Nilgiri leaf monkey (Trachypithecus johnii)

Status – endangered
Threat – Habitat degradation, development activities, introduction of exotic tree species.
Habitat/distribution – hilly areas of Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Tropical wet evergreen, semi-evergreen and riparian forests.

12. Nilgiri Tahr

Largest of the 3 tahr species.
Inhabit montane grasslands of western ghats.
State animal of Tamil Nadu.
Status – Endangered
Shoals forest (stunted evergreen forests) are typically avoided by tahr.
Threats – habitat loss, overgrazing, illegal hunting.

13. Wild ass/ khur (Equus hemionus)

The Indian wild ass or Baluchi wild ass (Equus hemionus khur) also called as
ghudkhur in the local Gujarati language.
Distribution – Mostly occurs in Rann of Kutch region and Rajasthan (only jalore district)
Population steadily increasing.
Today, its last refuge lies in – Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch.
Threat – Diseases, habitat degradation due to salt activities, Invasive species Prosopis
juliflora shrub, and encroachment and grazing by the Maldhari.

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