Mammals – Critically Endangered

1. Pygmy Hog (Porcula salvania)

World’s smallest wild pig
This species constructs a nest throughout the year.
Geographic range – In past found in northern West Bengal and north-western Assam but likely to have occurred in tall, wet alluvial grasslands extending in a narrow belt south of
the Himalayan foothills from north-western Uttar Pradesh and southern Nepal to Assam. Now confined to a very few locations in and around Manas National Park in north-western Assam.

Most useful indicators of the management status of grassland habitats which are crucial for the survival of other endangered species such as Indian Rhinoceros, Swamp Deer, Wild Buffalo, Hispid Hare, Bengal Florican and Swamp Francolin.
Habitat – Relatively undisturbed, tall ‘terai’ grasslands.
Because pygmy hog falls in critically endanger group, Pygmy -hog-sucking Louse (Haematopinus Oliveri), a parasite that feeds only on Pygmy Hogs will also fall in the same risk category of critically endangered as its survival is linked to that of the host species.
Threats – loss and degradation of grasslands, dry-season burning, livestock grazing, afforestation of grasslands and Hunting for wild meat.

Pygmy Hog (Porcula salvania)

2. Andaman White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura andamanensis), Jenkin’s Andaman Spiny Shrew (Crocidura jenkinsi) and the Nicobar White tailed Shrew

Both are endemic to India.
They are usually active by twilight or in the night and have specialized habitat
Habitat – Leaf litter and rock crevices.

  • o Andaman White-toothed Shrew – Mount Harriet in the South Andaman Islands.
    o Jenkin’s Andaman Spiny Shrew – Wright Myo and Mount Harriet in the South
    Andaman Islands.
    o The Nicobar White-tailed Shrew – southern tip of Greater Nicobar Island and area
    between Campbell Bay National Park to the Galathea River in the Andaman and
    Nicobar Islands.

Threats – Habitat loss due to selective logging, natural disasters such as the tsunami and drastic weather changes.

Jenkin's Andaman Spiny Shrew (Crocidura jenkinsi) and the Nicobar White tailed Shrew

3. Kondana Rat (Millardia kondana)

Nocturnal burrowing rodent
Found – only in India.
It is sometimes known to build nests.
Habitat -Tropical and subtropical dry deciduous forests and tropical scrub.
Distribution – Known only from the small Sinhagarh Plateau (near Pune, Maharashtra).
Threats – habitat loss, overgrazing of vegetation and disturbance from tourism and recreational activities.

4. The Large Rock Rat or Elvira Rat (Cremnomys elvira)

It is a medium sized, nocturnal and burrowing rodent.
Endemic to India.
Habitat – Tropical dry deciduous shrub land forest, seen in rocky areas.
Distribution – Known only from Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu.
Threats – Major threats are habitat loss, conversion of forests and fuel wood collection.

The Large Rock Rat or Elvira Rat (Cremnomys elvira)

5. The Namdapha Flying Squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi)

It is a unique (the only one in its genus) flying squirrel that is restricted to a single valley
in the Namdapha National park or wild life sanctuary in Arunachal Pradesh.
Habitat – Tropical forest.
Distribution – Found only in Namdapha Tiger Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh.
Threats – Hunted for food.

The Namdapha Flying Squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi)

6. Malabar Civet (Viverra civettina)

One of the world’s rarest mammals.
Endemic to India.
1st reported from Travancore, Kerala.
Nocturnal nature
Found exclusively in the Western Ghats.
Habitat – Wooded plains and hill slopes of evergreen rainforests.
Habitat/distribution – Western Ghats.
Threats: Deforestation and commercial plantations are major threats.

Malabar Civet (Viverra civettina)

7. Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)

Smallest and most endangered of the 5 rhinoceros’ species.
Now regionally extinct in India, once occurred in the foothills of the Himalayas and
north-east India.
The Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is also believed to be extinct in India and
only a small number survive in Java and Vietnam.
Threat – Poaching, loss of habitat.

Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)

8. Kashmir stag/hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu)

It is subspecies of Red Deer which is native to India.
Habitat – Dense riverine forests, high valleys, and mountains of the Kashmir valley and
northern Chamba in Himachal Pradesh.
State animal of Jammu and Kashmir.
Threat – habitat destruction, over-grazing by domestic livestock, and poaching.

9. Himalayan Brown/Red Bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus)

India’s largest animals in the Himalayas, omnivores.
Distribution – Nepal, Tibet, north India, and northern Pakistan.
Threats – loss of suitable habitat and persecution by humans.

Himalayan Brown/Red Bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus)
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