Any substance that is present in the environment or released into the environment causing substantial
Any hazardous substance could exhibit any one or more of the following
characteristics: toxicity, ignitability, corrosivity or reactivity (explosive). Thus, any
waste that contains hazardous or very hazardous substance is called hazardous waste.
Hazardous wastes can originate from various sources such as household, local areas,
urban, industry, agriculture, construction activity, hospitals and laboratories, power
plants and other sources.
The hazardous waste when disposed of release a number of environmentally unfriendly
Hospitals generate hazardous wastes that contain disinfectants and other harmful
chemicals, and also pathogenic micro-organisms. Such wastes also require careful
treatment and disposal. The use of incinerators (destroy, especially waste material, by
burning) is crucial to the disposal of hospital waste.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
Stockholm Convention is an international environmental treaty
Came into effective in 2004
Aims to eliminate or restrict the
production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
POPs are defined as “chemical substances that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human
health and the environment”.
Important Listed substances
Aldrin: Used as a local ectoparasiticide and insecticide
Heptachlor: Uses as a termiticide (including in the structure of houses and
underground), for organic treatment and in underground cable boxes
Hexachlorobenzene: Use as a chemical intermediate and a solvent for pesticides
Endrin: Endrin has been used primarily as an agricultural insecticide on tobacco, apple
trees, cotton, sugar cane, rice, cereal, and grains.
Polychlorinated biphenyl: PCB’s commercial utility was based largely ontheir chemical
stability, including low flammability, and physical properties, including electrical
insulating properties. They are highly toxic.
DDT: DDT is the best-known of several chlorine-containing pesticides used in the 1940s
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes
and Their Disposal.
International treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste
Main goal is to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed
It does not address the movement of radioactive waste.
182 states and the European Union are parties to the Convention
Location → Basel, Switzerland
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous
Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade.
Multilateral treaty to promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of
The convention promotes open exchange of information and calls on exporters of
hazardous chemicals to use proper labeling, safe handling, and inform purchasers of
any known restrictions or bans.
Signatory nations can decide whether to allow or ban the importation of chemicals
listed in the treaty.