Global initiative: PROTECTED AREA NETWORK

Global initiative: PROTECTED AREA NETWORK

Global initiative: PROTECTED AREA NETWORK

The MAB (Man and biosphere reserve)

• An Intergovernmental Scientific Programme.
Aim – to set a scientific basis for the improvement of the relationships between people
and their environment globally.
• Launched in the early 1970s it wanted to promote innovative approaches to economic
development that is socially and culturally appropriate and environmentally sustainable.
• Agenda of the MAB Prorgamme is defined by
International Coordinating Council (main
governing body
).
• For implementation of its interdisciplinary work on ground, MAB relies on the
World
Network of Biosphere Reserves
, and on thematic networks and partnerships for
knowledge-sharing, research and monitoring, education and training, and participatory
decision making.
• It predicts the consequences of today’s actions on tomorrow’s world and thereby
increases people’s ability to efficiently manage natural resources for the well-being of
both human populations and the environment.

Biosphere Reserve (BR)

Definition

• A Biosphere Reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal
areas which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and
Biosphere (MAB) Programme.
They are special environments for both people and the nature and are living examples
of how human beings and nature can co-exist while respecting each other’s needs.
• This program wants to promote sustainable development based on local community
efforts and sound science.

Characteristics of Biosphere reserve

• Each Biosphere Reserves are protected area of land and/or coastal environments where
in people are an integral component of the system.
• The network of BRs includes significant examples of biomes throughout the world.
• Each BR includes one or more of the following categories –

  • o BRs are representative examples of nature biomes.
    o They conserve unique communities of biodiversity.
    o BRs have examples of harmonious landscapes resulting from traditional patterns
    of land use.
    o BRs have examples of modified or degraded ecosystems capable of being
    restored to more natural conditions.

National Biosphere Reserve Programme

• It was initiated in 1986.

Aim

• To serve as wider base for conservation of entire range of living resources and their
ecological foundations.
• To bring out representative ecosystems.
• To ensure participation of local inhabitants → effective management and improving
livelihood.
• Integrate scientific research with conservation, education and training (as overall
management of BR).

Biosphere reserves of India

Year Name Location State Type Key Fauna
1986 Nilgiri
Biosphere
Reserve
Part of Waynad, Nagarhole,
Bandipur and Mudumalai,
Nilambur, Silent Valley
Tamil Nadu,
Kerala and
Karnataka
Western
Ghats
Nilgiri tahr, lion
tailed macaque
1988 Nanda Devi
National
Park &
Biosphere
Reserve
Parts of Chamoli District,
Pithoragarh District & Bageshwar
District
Uttarakhan
d
Western
Himalayas
Snow Leopard,
Himalayan Black
Bear
1989 Gulf of
Mannar
Indian part of Gulf of Mannar
extending from Rameswaram
island in the North to
Kanyakumari in the South of
Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka
Tamil Nadu Coasts Dugong or sea
cow
1988 Nokrek Part of Garo Hills Meghalaya East
Himalayas
Red panda
1989 Sundarbans Part of delta
of Ganges and Brahmaputra river
system
West
Bengal
Gangetic
Delta
Royal Bengal
tiger
1989 Manas Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon,
Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamrup and
Darrang Districts
Assam East
Himalayas
Golden
langur, red panda

 

1994 Simlipal Part of Mayurbhanj district Odisha Deccan
Peninsula
Gaur, royal
Bengal tiger,
elephant
1998 Dihang
Dibang
Part of Siang and Dibang Valley Arunachal
Pradesh
Eastern
Himalaya
Mishmi
Takin, Musk Deer
1999 Pachmarhi
Biosphere
Reserve
Parts of Betul District,
Hoshangabad District and
Chhindwara District
Madhya
Pradesh
Semi-Arid Giant
squirrel, flying
squirrel
2005 Achanakmar
Amarkantak
Biosphere
Reserve
Part
of Annupur, Dindori and Bilaspur
districts
Madhya
Pradesh,
Chhattisgar
h
Maikala
Hills
Four-horned
antelope, Indian
wild dog, Sarus
crane, White
rumped vulture,
Philautus
sanctisilvaticus
(Sacred grove
bush frog)
2008 Great Rann
of Kutch
Part
of Kutch, Rajkot, Surendranagar a
nd Patan Districts
Gujarat Desert Indian wild ass
2009 Cold Desert Pin Valley National Park and
surroundings;Chandratal and
Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife
Sancturary
Himachal
Pradesh
Western Hi
malayas
Snow leopard
2000 Khangchendz
onga
Parts of Kangchenjunga Sikkim East
Himalayas
Snow
leopard, red
panda
2001 Agasthyamal
ai Biosphere
Reserve
Neyyar, Peppara and Shenduruny
Wildlife Sanctuary and their
adjoining areas
Kerala, Ta
mil Nadu
Western
Ghats
Nilgiri
tahr, elephants
1989 Great Nicobar
Biosphere
Reserve
Southern most islands
of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman
and Nicobar
Islands
Islands Saltwater
crocodile

 

1997 Dibru
Saikhowa
Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia
districts
Assam East
Himalayas
Golden langur
2010 Seshachalam
Hills
Seshachalam Hill Ranges
covering parts of Chittoor and
Kadapa districts
Andhra
Pradesh
Eastern
Ghats
Slender Loris
2011 Panna Part of Panna
District and Chhatarpur District
Madhya
Pradesh
Catchment
Area of
the Ken
River
Tiger, chital,
chinkara,
sambhar and
sloth bear




Criteria for selection of BRs

Primary criteria

• A site that must contain an effectively protected and minimally disturbed core area.
• It should include –

  • o Additional land and water suitable for research.
    o Demonstration of sustainable methods of research and management.

• Core area should be typical of a biogeographical unit and large enough to sustain viable
populations representing all tropic levels in the ecosystem.

Secondary criteria

• Areas having rare and endangered species.
• Areas having diversity of soil and micro-climatic conditions and indigenous varieties of
biota.
• Areas potential for preservation of traditional tribal or rural modes of living for
harmonious use of environment.

Structure and Design of Biosphere Reserves

In order to undertake complementary activities of biodiversity conservations and development
of sustainable management aspects, Biosphere Reserves are demarcated into three interrelated zones.

The Core Zone

• It should be kept absolutely undisturbed.
• It must contain suitable habitat for plant and animal species
• It conserves the wild relatives of economic species and also represent important genetic
reservoirs.
• It also contains places of exceptional scientific interest.
• It secures legal protection and management and research activities that do not affect
natural processes and wildlife are allowed.
• Strict nature reserves and wilderness portions of the area are designated as core areas
of BR.
• It is to be kept-free from all human pressures external to the system.

The Buffer zone

• Surrounds the core zone.
• Its uses and activities (restoration, demonstration sites for enhancing value addition for
the resources, limited recreation, tourism, fishing and grazing) are managed in ways that
protect the core zone.

Q.) Why these activities area allowed when they can have detrimental impact on
biosphere reserve?
To reduce its effect on core zone.
• Research and educational activities are to be encouraged.
• Human activities, if natural then only allowed.

The Transition Zone

• Outermost part of a Biosphere Reserve.
• This is usually not delimited one.

• It is a zone of cooperation where conservation, knowledge and management skills are
applied and uses are managed in harmony with the purpose of the Biosphere Reserve.
Uses include – settlements, crop lands, managed forests and area for intensive
recreation, and other economic uses characteristic of the region.


How Biosphere Reserves are different from protected areas?

BR intention is not to replace existing protected areas but it widens the scope of
conventional approach of protection and further strengthen the Protected Area
Network.
Existing legally protected areas (NP, WLS, Tiger Reserve and reserve protected forests)
may become part of the BR without any change in their legal status.
Inclusion of such areas in BR will enhance their national value but it doesn’t mean that
Biosphere Reserves are to be established only around the National Parks and Wildlife
Sanctuaries.
However, the Biosphere Reserves differ from protected areas due to their
emphasis on –
1. Conservation of overall biodiversity rather than some specific flagship species
2. Different components of BRs like landscapes, habitats, and species and land races.
3. Developmental activities, and resolution of conflicts between development and
conservation.
4. Local people’s participation and their training.
5. Sustainable environment friendly development.
6. Research and Monitoring.

World Network of Biosphere Reserves

In order to facilitate cooperation, BRs are admitted into international network by
International Coordinating Council of MAB program of UNESCO on the request of
participating country subject to fulfilling of criteria.
Participation is voluntary and BRs remain under sole sovereignty of state.
Delisting – on grounds of violation of obligation for conservation and sustainable
development of BRs.
Ten of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere
Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list.

Name States Year
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka 2000
Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu 2001
Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve West Bengal 2001
Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Uttarakhand 2004
Nokrek Biosphere Reserve Meghalaya 2009
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh 2009
Simlipal Biosphere Reserve Odisha 2009
Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve Great Nicobar 2013
Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh 2012[3]
Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve Kerala and Tamil Nadu 2016[




Share this:
Close Menu