Environmental organizations for UPSC

Environmental organizations for UPSC

Environmental organizations for UPSC: The Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI), Central Zoo Authority (CZA), The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), Wildlife Crime Control Bureau, National Lake Conservation Plan (NLCP), National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA), Wildlife Trust of India

Central Zoo Authority (CZA)

Statutory body
It is constituted under the Wild Life (Protection) Act.
It regulates the functioning of the zoos but its role is more of a facilitator than a
regulator.
The main objective – To complement the national effort in the conservation of wildlife.
Every zoo in the country is required to obtain recognition from the CZA for its
operation. The Authority evaluates the zoos with reference to the parameters
prescribed under the Rules and grants recognition accordingly.

Central Zoo Authority

Vision

To complement and strengthen the national efforts in conservation of the biodiversity
of the country, particularly the fauna through the ex-situ conservation linked with in-situ practices.

Mission

To provide better upkeep and veterinary care to the wild animal housed in zoos in
India to ensure their conservation through best practices of management and
bringing education & awareness among the people.

Functions

  • To specify the minimum standards for housing, upkeep and veterinary care of the
    animals kept in a zoo.
  • To evaluate and assess the functioning of zoos with respect to the standards or the
    norms as may be prescribed.
  • To recognize or derecognize zoos.
  • To identify endangered species of wild animals for purposes of captive breeding and
    assigning responsibility in this regard to a zoo.
  • To co-ordinate the acquisition, exchange, and loaning of animals for breeding purposes.
  • To ensure maintenance of stud-books of endangered species of wild animals bred in
    captivity.
  • To identify priorities and themes with regard to the display of captive animals in a zoo;
  • To coordinate training of zoo personnel in India and outside India.
  • To co-ordinate research in captive breeding and educational programmes for the
    purposes of the zoo.
  • To provide technical and other assistance to zoos for their proper management and
    development on scientific lines.

Powers

  • Recognition of zoos.
  • Permission for the acquisition of wild/captive animals
  • Cognizance of offenses
  • Grant of licenses, certificate of ownership, recognition, etc.

The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA)

  • Established in 2003 to implement India’s Biological Diversity Act (2002), after India
    signed the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1992.
  • It is an autonomous statutory body.
  • It performs the facilitative, regulatory and advisory function for the GoI on issues of
    conservation, sustainable use of biological resources and fair and equitable sharing of
    benefits arising out of the use of biological resources.

The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA)

Objectives

  1. Anybody seeking any kind of intellectual property rights (IPR) on a
    research based upon biological resource or knowledge obtained
    from India has to obtain prior approval of the NBA
  2. The NBA will impose benefit-sharing conditions.
  3. It ensures the equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of
    biological resources and associated knowledge.
  4. Ensures protection to the knowledge of local people relating to
    biodiversity through measures such as registration of such
    knowledge.
  5. Advises State Governments in identifying the areas of biodiversity
    importance (biodiversity hotspots) as heritage sites.

Functions

The NBA may

  • Advise the Central Government on matters relating to the conservation of
    biodiversity, sustainable use of its components and equitable sharing of benefits
    arising out of the utilization of biological resources.
  • Advise the State Governments in the selection of areas of biodiversity
    importance to be notified as heritage sites and measures for the management of
    such heritage sites.
  • Perform such other functions as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of
    this Act.

On behalf of govt. NBA can take any measures necessary to oppose the grant of IPR in
any country outside India on any biological resource obtained from India or knowledge
associated with such biological resource which is derived from India.

Transfer of biological resource to knowledge
  • Without the NBA’s permission, no person shall transfer any biological resource or
    knowledge associated with others.
  • The NBA grants approval for transfer, after making inquiries subject to certain terms
    and conditions including the imposition of charges by way of royalty or for reasons to be recorded in writing, reject the application.
  • NBA gives public notice of approval granted.
The State Biodiversity Boards (SBBs)

They advise State Governments on –

  • Conservation of biodiversity
  • Sustainable use of its components
  • Equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of biological
    resources

Permits requests for commercial utilization or bio-survey and bio-utilization of any
biological resource by Indians.

The local level Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs)

Responsible for –

  • Promoting conservation
  • Sustainable use and documentation of biological diversity (including preservation
    of habitats, conservation of landraces, folk varieties, and cultivars, domesticated
    stocks and breeds of animals and microorganisms)
  • Chronicling of knowledge relating to biological diversity.

Wildlife Crime Control Bureau

  • Statutory body under Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • It would complement the efforts of the state governments by enforcing Wildlife
    (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • Comes under MoEF.

Functions

  • The collection, collation of intelligence.
  • Dissemination and establishment of a centralized Wildlife Crime data bank.
  • Implementation of the provisions of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 by coordinating
    actions of various enforcement authorities.
  • To facilitate co-ordination and universal action for wildlife crime control, assistance to
    concerned authorities in foreign countries and concerned international organizations.
  • Development of infrastructure and capacity building for a scientific and professional
    investigation
  • Advice the GoI on issues relating to wildlife crimes.
  • • A collection, collation of intelligence.
    • Dissemination and establishment of a centralized Wildlife Crime data bank.
    • Implementation of the provisions of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 by coordinating actions of various enforcement authorities.
    •To facilitate co-ordination and universal action for wildlife crime control, assistance to
    concerned authorities in foreign countries and concerned international organizations.
    • Development of infrastructure and capacity building for a scientific and
    professional investigation
    • Advice the GoI on issues relating to wildlife crimes.

National Lake Conservation Plan (NLCP)

  • It comes under MoEF.
  • It is for conservation and management of polluted and degraded lakes in urban and
    semi-urban areas.

Objective

To restore and conserve the urban and semi-urban lakes of the country degraded
due to wastewater discharge into the lake and other unique freshwater eco
systems, through an integrated ecosystem approach.

Activities Covered Under NLCP

  • Prevention of pollution from point sources by intercepting, diverting and treating the
    pollution loads entering the lake.
    The interception and diversion works may include sewerage & sewage treatment for the
    entire lake catchment area.
    In situ measures of lake cleaning such as de-silting, de-weeding, bioremediation,
    aeration, bio-manipulation, the nutrient reduction can be used.
    Catchment area treatment.
    Strengthening of the bund, lake fencing, shoreline development, etc.
    Lakefront eco-development including the public interface.
    Solid waste management & provision of dhobi ghats is not covered under NLCP.
    Prevention of pollution from non-point sources by providing low-cost sanitation.
    Public awareness and public participation.
    Capacity building, training, and research in the area of Lake Conservation.
    Any other activity depending upon location-specific requirements.

In 2013, (NLCP) and National Wetlands Conservation Programme (NWCP) were merged into a new scheme called the ‘National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-systems’ (NPCA).

Reason for convergence

To avoid overlap, promote better synergies and to ensure conservation and
management works.

About NPCA

It is an integrated scheme with the objective of conserving aquatic ecosystems (lakes and
wetlands), through an implementation of sustainable conservation plans and governed with
application of uniform policy and guidelines.

Objective of NPCA

Holistic conservation and restoration of lakes and wetlands for achieving desired water quality enhancement, besides improvement in biodiversity and the ecosystem, through an integrated and a multidisciplinary approach with a common regulatory framework.

National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)

  • Constituted in 2009 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  • Planning, financing, monitoring and coordinating body of the center and the states.
  • It has both regulatory and developmental functions.
  • It will take measures for effective abatement of pollution and conservation of the river
    Ganga in keeping with sustainable development needs.
  • It had started the Mission Clean Ganga with a changed and comprehensive approach to champion the challenges posed to Ganga through four different sectors, namely, of wastewater management, solid waste management, industrial pollution, and riverfront development.
  • MoWR RD & GR) – nodal Ministry for the NGRBA.
  • The authority is chaired by the Prime Minister and has as its members the Union
    Ministers concerned, the Chief Ministers of the States through which Ganga flows, viz., Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, among others.
  • This initiative is expected to rejuvenate the collective efforts of the Centre and the
    States for cleaning the river.

Objective

To ensure effective abatement of pollution and conservation of the river Ganga by adopting a river basin approach for comprehensive planning and management.

Power and functions

National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)
National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)

National Mission for Clean Ganga

  • It is the implementation wing of NGRBA.
  • It is a registered society originally formed by MoEFCC under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
  • At national level NMCG is the coordinating body and is being supported by States Level Program Management Groups (SPMGs) of UP, Uttarakhand, Bihar and West Bengal
    which, are also registered as societies under Societies Registration Act, 1860 and a
    dedicated Nodal Cell in Jharkhand.
  • Area of operation of NMCG – Ganga River Basin, including the states through which
    Ganga flows, as well as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
  • The area of operation may be extended, varied or altered in future, by the Governing
    Council to such other states through which major tributaries of the river Ganga flow,
    and as the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) may decide for the purpose of effective abatement of pollution and conservation of the river Ganga.
National Ganga River Basin Authority

Wildlife Trust of India

It is an NGO for nature conservation and committed to the service of nature.
Mission – to conserve wildlife and its habitat and to work for the welfare of individual
wild animals, in partnership with communities and governments.
Vision – A secure natural heritage of India
Mission – To conserve wildlife and its habitat and to work for the welfare of individual
wild animals, in partnership with communities and governments.

WTI
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