Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
- It is legally binding convention
- 1st time it is recognized that conservation of biological diversity is a common concern of humankind and is an integral part of the development process.
- It covers all the ecosystems, species, and genetic resources.
To develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.
Three main goals
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity
- It is also known as the Biosafety Protocol.
- Biosafety refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modem biotechnology.
- It clearly recognizes these twin aspects of modern biotechnology –
o Access to and transfer of technologies
o Appropriate procedures to enhance the safety of biotechnology technologies.
- Ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity including humans. (In short or India Year Book definition – an objective of CPB is to ensure safe
transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology. India is a party to the CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) as well as CPB)
- It is an additional agreement to CBD(Convention on Biological Diversity).
- It establishes the procedure for regulating the import and export of LMOs from one country to another.
- It ensures that parties which ship LMOs from one country to another, package, handle and transport them in a safe manner.
- Shipping must be accompanied by documentation with contact details and
requirements of safe handling, storage, and transport.
Procedures of an introduction of LMOs in the environment
AIA (Advance Informed Agreement) –
- A country intending to export an LMO for intentional release into
the environment must notify in writing the Party of import before
the first proposed export takes place.
- Import Party must acknowledge notification receipt within 90 days
and must, communicate its decision on whether or not import the LMO within 270 days.
- Parties decision must be based on a risk assessment of the LMO (in
a scientific and transparent manner)
- After risk assessment, the decision and summary should be
communicated to a central information system, the Biosafety
LMOs-FFP(LMOs- food or feed, or for processing) –
- Parties that decide to approve and place such LMOs on the market
are required to make their decision and relevant information,
including the risk assessment reports, publicly available through
Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol
- CBD is reinforced by the Nagoya Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress.
- It specifies response measures to be taken in the event of damage to biodiversity resulting from LMOs.
- The competent authority in a Party to the Supplementary Protocol must require the person in control of the LMO (operator) to take the response measure.
Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS)
- It is a supplementary agreement to CBD(Convention on Biological Diversity).
- It provides a transparent legal framework for the effective implementation of objectives of the CBD(Convention on Biological Diversity).
Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic
resources, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
Which one of the following is associated with the issue of control and phasing out of the use of ozone-depleting substances?
a) Bretton Woods Conference
b) Montreal Protocol
c) Kyoto Protocol
d) Nagoya Protocol
- Domestic-level access measures are to -Create legal certainty, clarity, and transparency
- Provide fair and non-arbitrary rules and procedures
- Establish dear rules and procedures for prior informed consent and mutually agreed terms
- Domestic-level benefit-sharing measures are to provide for the fair arid equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources with the contracting party providing genetic resources.
- Utilization includes research and development on the genetic or biochemical composition of genetic resources, as well as subsequent applications and commercialization
- Sharing is subject to mutually agreed terms
- Benefits may be monetary or non- monetary such as royalties and the sharing of research results.
- Parties to cooperate in cases of alleged violation of another contracting party’s requirements
- Parties to encourage contractual provisions on dispute resolution in mutually agreed terms
- Parties to ensure an opportunity is available to seek recourse under their legal systems when disputes arise from mutually agreed terms
- Parties to take measures to monitor the utilization of genetic resources after they leave a country.
- It addresses traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources with provisions on
- It also addresses genetic resources where indigenous and local communities have the established right to grant access to them.
- Contracting Parties are to take measures to ensure these communities’ prior informed consent, and fair and equitable benefit-sharing, keeping in mind community laws and procedures as well as customary use and exchange.
- It will create greater legal and certainty and transparency.
- By helping to ensure benefit-sharing it creates incentives to conserve and sustainably use genetic resources.
- By ensuring benefit-sharing it enhances the contribution of biodiversity to development and human well-being.
Strategic Plan For Biodiversity 2011 – 2020
- 10th meeting of CoP (Conference of Parties) held in – Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan (2010)
- It adopted a revised and updated Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, including the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, for the 2011-2020 period.
Aichi Biodiversity Targets
Strategic Goal A
- By 2020, at the latest –
o Awareness of BD among people and steps taken to conserve it and use
o BD values integration into national and local development + poverty reduction
o Incentives (including subsidies) are eliminated, phased out or reformed so –ve impacts on BD can be reduced.
o To achieve or implement plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of the use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.
Strategic Goal B
- Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity (BD) and promote sustainable use by the 2020 –
o The rate of loss of all forests (including natural habitats) should be close to zero + reduction in fragmentation and degradation.
o Avoiding overfishing + recovery plans shouldn’t impact the threatened species and vulnerable ecosystem (ES).
o Sustainable management of agriculture, aquaculture, and forestry.
o Reduce pollution to very low levels (all types)
o Identifying and prioritizing invasive alien species and pathways + measures to manage pathways.
o Minimization of climate change impact on vulnerable ecosystems.
Strategic Goal C
- To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity by 2020 –
o 17% of terrestrial inland water and 10% of coastal marine areas (important for BD and ES) are conserved effectively and equitably.
o Prevention of extinction of threatened species + conservation status of most declined has improved and sustained.
o Minimize genetic erosion and safeguard genetic diversity of plants and animals including wild.
Strategic Goal D
- Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2020 –
o Restoration and safeguarding of ES that provides essential services.
o Ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration.
o By 2015, ABS (Nagoya protocol) is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation.
Strategic Goal E
- Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management, and capacity building
o By 2015, each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan.
o By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations, and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations.
o By 2020, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources.
- Important conference
- Held in Hyderabad.
- Most important outcome – the commitment of the Parties to double the international financial flows for Biodiversity by 2015.
- India has committed the US $50 million towards strengthening the mechanism for biodiversity conservation in the country during its presidency of CBD called the Hyderabad Pledge.
- Funds use – to enhance technical and human capabilities at the national and state-level mechanisms to attain the CBD(Convention on Biological Diversity) objectives.
- The country has also earmarked funds to promote similar capacity building in developing countries. India formally took charge of the presidency of CBD from Japan for the next two years on October 8 at the inaugural of the CoP 11.
- India has instituted together with UNDP Biodiversity Governance Awards. The first such awards were given during the CoP 11.