UPSC IAS (Union Public Service Commission): [Ultimate Guide]

UPSC is India’s central recruiting agency. UPSC is responsible for appointments to and examinations for All India services and group A & group B of Central services. UPSC conducts exams like CSE (civil service exam) to recruit candidates into top Government services like IAS, IPS, IFS, IRS, etc. The commission is mandated by the Constitution for …

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UPSC syllabus in hindi

UPSC syllabus in Hindi Prelims and Mains

UPSC IAS Exam 2019 Syllabus in Hindi UPSC syllabus in Hindi: IAS परीक्षा की तैयारी शुरु करने से पहले IAS परीक्षा के पाठ्यक्रम का ज्ञान पूरी तरह से होना अनिवार्य है। IAS परिक्षा का पाठ्यक्रम बहुत ही विस्तृत एंव व्यापक है। IAS परीक्षा के पाठ्यक्रम का ज्ञान IAS Exam की तैयारी के लिए सही रणनीति …

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Important International Conventions on Environment and Ecology [UPSC]

Here is the list of International Conventions on various aspects – Nature conservation 1. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)2. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)3. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands4. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES)5. The Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network (TRAFFIC)6. Convention on the Conservation of Migratory …

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United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED]

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development(UNCED), also known as Rio Summit, Rio Conference, Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The issues addressed included – Systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components (like lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals) Alternative sources of …

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Environmental organizations

Environmental organizations for UPSC

Environmental organizations for UPSC: The Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI), Central Zoo Authority (CZA), The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), Wildlife Crime Control Bureau, National Lake Conservation Plan (NLCP), National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA), Wildlife Trust of India Central Zoo Authority (CZA)  Statutory body  It is constituted under the Wild Life (Protection) …

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air quality index

Air quality index India

National Air quality index (AQI) India:  Launched by – MoEF in 2015. Initiative under ‘Swachh Bharat’. It helps the common man to judge the air quality within his vicinity. Index constituted as a part of the Government’s mission to improve the culture of cleanliness. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) along with State Pollution Control Boards …

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Environment Education

Environment Education, Awareness & Training (EEAT) Scheme

Environment Education EEAT is a flagship scheme of the MoEF for enhancing the understanding of people at all levels about the relationship between human beings and the environment and to develop capabilities/skills to improve and protect the environment. Launched in 1983-84 (during 6th FYP) Basic objective – to promote environmental awareness among all sections of …

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National Clean Energy Fund

CEPI, LaBL, Ecomark, USERS, BCRLIP, National Clean Energy Fund

CEPI, LaBL, Ecomark, USERS, BCRLIP, National Clean Energy Fund Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI) Developed by – CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) It is a rational number to characterize the environmental quality at a given locationfollowing the algorithm of source, pathway and receptor have been developed. It captures the various dimensions of environment including air, …

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Social forestry and National Bamboo Mission

Social forestry and National Bamboo Mission for UPSC

Social forestry and National Bamboo Mission Social forestry  Social forestry term was 1st used by National commission on Agriculture in 1976. Aim – taking off pressure from forests and making use of all unused and fallow land (byraising plantations so as to meet the growing demand for 5Fs, thereby reducing thepressure on the traditional forest …

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National wildlife action plan

National wildlife action plan (NWAP), NAEB, CAFMPA, JFM

National wildlife action plan (NWAP), National afforestation and eco-development board (NAEB), Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA), Joint Forest Management (JFM) National wildlife action plan (NWAP) 1st NWAP – 1983. 2nd NWAP – 2002 3rd NWAP (drafted) – 2016 Who adopted it – Indian board for wildlife. What it does – it had …

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ACTS AND PROGRAMS

ACTS AND PROGRAMS for ENVIRONMENT [UPSC]

ACTS AND PROGRAMS for ENVIRONMENT, Wildlife protection act 1972, Environment(Protection) Act 1986, National Forest Policy 1988, Biological Diversity Act 2002, Coastal regulation zone , Wetlands (Conservation And Management) Rules 2010, National Green Tribunal (NGT), The Ozone Depleting Substances Rules. ACTS AND PROGRAMS Constitutional Provisions related to environment According to 42nd amendment – Article-48-A of the …

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Green economy

NGGIP and Green economy

National Green House Gas Inventories Program (NGGIP) and Green economy National Green House Gas Inventories Program (NGGIP)  Established by – IPCC. “To provide methods for estimating national inventories of greenhouse gas emissions toand removals from, the atmosphere.” The guidance produced by the NGGIP is used by countries that are parties to theUNFCCC to estimate …

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  The UN General Assembly adopted a resolution, in 1988, on the subject and endorsedthe UNEP/WMO proposal for the setting up of the Inter-Governmental Panel on ClimateChange (IPCC). Established by – United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Worldmeteorological Organization (WMO) The IPCC is …

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Global Environment Facility

Global Environment Facility and Smart Agriculture

Global Environment Facility and Smart Agriculture Global Environment Facility (GEF)  GEF, established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, is a catalyst for action on theenvironment — and much more. Through its strategic investments, the GEF works with partners to tackle the planet’sbiggest environmental issues. Their funding also helps reduce poverty, strengthen …

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REDD and REDD+

REDD and REDD PLUS [UPSC]

REDD and REDD+ (plus) REDD and REDD+  Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is a mechanism that has been under negotiation by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) since 2005, with the objective of mitigating climate change through reducing net emissions of greenhouse gases through enhanced forest management in …

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COP 21

Paris, COP 21, 2015

Paris, COP 21  It is dealing with greenhouse gases emissions mitigation, adaptation and finance It will start in the year 2020 Agreement on treaty was negotiated by representatives of 195 countries at the 21st COPof the UNFCCC in Paris o Adopted on 12 December 2015o 178 UNFCCC members signed the treaty, 18 of which …

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Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification [UPSC]

Ocean acidification Ocean acidification Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth’s oceans, caused bythe uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. It increases the concentration of hydrogen ions and decreases the concentration ofcarbonate ions. Seawater is slightly basic (meaning pH > 7), and the process in question is a …

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Sea turtle and Indian crocodile conservation Project

Sea turtle and Indian crocodile conservation Project [UPSC]

Sea turtle and Indian crocodile conservation Project Sea turtle Project Olive ridley turtle Which one of the following is the national aquatic animal of India?(a) Saltwater crocodile(b) Olive ridley turtle(c) Gangetic dolphin(d) GharialPrelims 2015  A significant proportion of world’s Olive Ridley Turtle population migrates every winterto Indian coastal waters for nesting mainly at eastern …

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Project Snow Leopard

Project Snow Leopard {India} for UPSC

Project Snow Leopard Project Snow Leopard  A globally endangered species.  Surviving in the Himalaya and Central Asian mountains, facing tremendous human pressures.  India having a substantial proportion of its global population. Distribution in India – High altitude areas of Indian Himalayas. 5 Himalayan states – Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim …

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Vulture in India

Vulture in India [UPSC]

Vulture in India Vulture in India India has 9 species of vultures in the wild. They are the – 1. Oriental White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis) 2. Slender billed Vulture (Gyps tenuirostris) 3. Long billed Vulture (Gyps indicus) 4. Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) 5. Red Headed Vulture (Sarcogyps calvus) 6. Indian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) 7. …

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Project Elephant

Project Elephant [UPSC]

Project Elephant Objectives   To protect elephants, their habitat & corridors To address issues of man, animal conflict Welfare of domesticated elephants Aim  Restoring the natural habitats of elephants. Addressing man and elephant conflict Developing scientific and planned management measures for conservation of elephants. Protecting the elephants from poachers and other unnatural causes of …

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Global initiative PROTECTED AREA NETWORK

Global initiative: PROTECTED AREA NETWORK

Global initiative: PROTECTED AREA NETWORK The MAB (Man and biosphere reserve) • An Intergovernmental Scientific Programme. • Aim – to set a scientific basis for the improvement of the relationships between people and their environment globally. • Launched in the early 1970s it wanted to promote innovative approaches to economic development that is socially and …

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Reptiles - Near Threatened

Reptiles – Near Threatened, Critically Endangered -Fish, Spiders – Critically Endangered, Corals-Critically Endangered

Reptiles – Near Threatened Sispara day gecko (Cnemaspis sisparensis)  It is a large gecko which dwells usually in forests, it is largely insectivorous and nocturnal.  Distribution – Endemic to Western Ghats, and found in Sispara, Nilgiris, Kavalai near Cochin.  Threats – Habitat conversion and modification. Critically Endangered – Fish The Pondicherry Shark …

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Reptiles – Critically Endangered

Reptiles – Critically Endangered

Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus)  Most uniquely evolved crocodilian in the world, a specialized, river-dwelling, fish-eater.  Habitat – Clean rivers with sand banks.  Distribution – Only viable population in the National Chambal Sanctuary, spread across three states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh in India.  Small non-breeding populations exist in Son, Gandak, …

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Marine Mammals - Endangered and Vulnerable

Marine Mammals – Endangered and Vulnerable

Marine Mammals – Endangered Freshwater/river dolphin  Habitat/distribution – India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin and Indus river dolphin. I. Ganges river dolphin  Habitat/distribution – Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers and their tributaries in Bangladesh, India and Nepal.  Our national aquatic animal. II. Indus River …

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Mammals – Near Threatened

Mammals – Near Threatened: Near-threatened species

Mammals – Near Threatened Marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata)  Habitat – northern India and Nepal, through south-eastern Asia to Borneo and Sumatra.o In India – Sikkim, Darjeeling, moist tropical forest. Arboreal in nature. Threats – hunting, habitat destruction for marbled cat and its prey. Blackbuck  Distribution – In the Indian subcontinent, the blackbuck can …

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Mammals – Vulnerable

Mammals – Vulnerable

Mammals – Vulnerable 1. Gaur  The gaur (Bos gaurus), also called Indian bison, is a large bovine native to South Asiaand Southeast Asia. Largely confined to evergreen forests or semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests,but also occur in deciduous forest areas at the periphery of their range. The domesticated form of the gaur, Bos frontalis, …

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Mammals – Endangered

1. Dhole/ Asiatic wild dog or Indian wild dog (Cuon alpinus)  India contains the largest numbers of Dholes.  Geographic range – High populations in the Western Ghats and central Indian forests. The Eastern Ghats have low population. Dholes are also found in the northeastern states but decreasing in this region due to a …

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Wildlife of India

Wildlife of India

Wildlife of India Himalayan Mountain System West Himalayas have low rainfall, heavy snowfall (temperate conditions), whereas, in the eastern Himalayas, there is heavy rainfall, snowfall only at very high altitudes, whereas at lower altitudes conditions are similar to the tropical rain forests. Flora and fauna of both Himalayas differ. Note – don’t worry about names they …

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