Birds – critically endangered
Jerdon’s Courser (Rhinoptilus bitorquatus)
Found only in – northern part of Andhra Pradesh in peninsular India [Sri
Lankamaleswara Wildlife Sanctuary].
Habitat – Undisturbed scrub jungle with open areas.
Distribution – Jerdon’s Courser is endemic to Andhra Pradesh.
Threats – Clearing of scrub jungle, creation of new pastures, growing of dry land crops,
Illegal trapping of birds, plantations of exotic trees, quarrying and the construction of
the River Canals.
Forest Owlet (Heteroglaux blewitti)
Habitat – Dry deciduous forest.
Distribution – South Madhya Pradesh, in north-west Maharashtra and northcentral
Threats – Logging operations, burning and cutting of trees damage roosting and nesting
trees of the Forest Owlet.
White-bellied Heron (Ardea insignis)
Extremely rare bird
Distribution – found in five or six sites in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, one or two sites
in Bhutan, and a few in Myanmar.
Habitat – Rivers with sand or gravel bars or inland lakes.
Threats – Loss and degradation of lowland forests and wetlands through direct
exploitation and disturbance by humans.
Bengal Florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis)
A rare bustard species that is very well known for its mating dance.
Habitat – Grasslands occasionally interspersed with scrublands.
Distribution – Native to – Cambodia, India and Nepal.
o In India – Uttar Pradesh, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.
Threats – conversion of bird’s grassland habitat for various purposes including
agriculture is mainly responsible for its population decline.
Himalayan Quail (Ophrysia superciliosa)
Also known as Mountain quail.
This species was known from only 2 locations in the western Himalayas in Uttarakhand,
Habitat – tall grasslands and scrub on steep hillsides.
Distribution – Western Himalayas.
Threats – Indiscriminate hunting during the colonial period along with habitat
Pink- headed Duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea)
Males have a deep pink head and neck from which the bird derives its name.
Habitat – Overgrown still-water pools, marshes and swamps in lowland forests and tall
Distribution – Recorded in India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Maximum records are from
Threats – Wetland degradation and loss of habitat, along with hunting are the main
causes of its decline.
Sociable Lapwing (Vanellus gregarius)
Winter migrant to India.
Included in critically endangered list because of a sudden and rapid population decline.
Habitat – Fallow fields and scrub desert.
Distribution – central Asia, Asia Minor, Russia, Egypt, India, Pakistan.
o In India – north and north-west of the country.
Threats – Conversion of habitat to arable land, illegal hunting and proximity to human settlements.
Spoon Billed Sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus)
It requires highly specialized breeding habitat, a constraint that has always kept its
India is home to some of the last existing wintering grounds of this species.
Habitat – Coastal areas with sparse vegetation. No breeding records further inland than
7 km from the seashore.
Distribution – West Bengal, Orissa, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Threats – Habitat degradation and land reclamation. Human disturbance also leads to
high incidence of nest desertion.
Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus)
It is a large, strikingly majestic migratory bird that breeds and winters in wetlands.
They are known to winter at Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan.
Habitat – Wetland areas.
Distribution – Keoladeo National Park in Rajasthan.
Threats – Pesticide pollution, wetland drainage, development of prime habitat into agricultural fields, and to some extent, hunting.