Bali meet, COP 15, COP 16, COP 17, COP 18 [UPSC]

Bali meet, COP 15, COP 16, COP 17, COP 18 [UPSC]

Bali meet, COP 15 Copenhagen Summit, COP 16 Cancun Summit, COP 17 Durban Summit, Doha outcomes COP 18

Bali meet

Held in – 2007


Aim – to push the world towards taking action that reduces the GHG gases in the
atmosphere which cause CC.
They was to discuss what after 2012? (what are countries expected to do after the first
phase of Kyoto ends in 2012)
Developing countries – “After 2012 developing countries like India and china also need
to take some responsibility, as they are growing economically and increasing emissions”.
New set of principles which will decide what to do after 2012.

Bali roadmap

A 2-year process to finalizing a binding agreement in 2009 in Copenhagen.
Map includes –

  • o The Bali Action Plan (BAP)
    o The Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under
    the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and their 2009 deadline
    o Launch of the adaptation Fund

    o Decisions on technology transfer
    o On reducing emissions from deforestation.

Bali Action Plan

It is a comprehensive process to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation
of the Convention through long-term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012,
in order to reach an agreed outcome and adopt a decision.
It is divided into five main categories: shared vision, mitigation, adaptation, technology
and financing

COP 15 Copenhagen Summit

Discord between developing and developed nations.
Summit conclusion – Copenhagen Accord ( a five nation accord- BASIC and US)

  • o Copenhagen Accord is a non-binding agreement.

Accord – “deep international emissions cuts are needed to hold the increase in global
temperature to under 2°C”
Under the Accord, developed countries (Annex I) agree to set targets for reductions in
their greenhouse gas emissions by 2020.
Developing countries agree to pursue nationally appropriate mitigation strategies to
slow the growth of their emissions, but are not committed to reducing their carbon
Developing countries, specially these with low-emitting economies should be provided
incentives to continue to develop on a low-emission pathway
Agrees that developed countries would raise funds of $30 billion from 2010:-2012 of
new and additional resources
Agrees a “goal” for the world to raise $100 billion per year by 2020.

COP 16 Cancun Summit

The outcome of the summit was an agreement adopted by the states’ parties that called
for the 100 billion USD per annum “Green Climate Fund”, and a “Climate Technology
Centre” and network.
However the funding of the Green Climate Fund was not agreed upon. Nor was a
commitment to a second period of the Kyoto Protocol agreed upon, but it was
concluded that the base year shall be 1990 and the global warming potentials shall be
those provided by the IPCC.

Mechanism of COP 16

3 mechanisms –

  • Technology mechanism
  • GCF (Green climate fund)
  • Adaptation committee
Technology mechanism

The Technology Mechanism is expected to facilitate the implementation of enhanced
action technology development and transfer in order to support action on mitigation
and adaptation to climate change.


Green Climate Fund is a fund within the
framework of the UNFCCC.
Founded as a mechanism to redistribute money
from the developed to the developing world, in order to
assist the developing countries in adaptation and
mitigation practices to counter climate change.
It is intended to be the centerpiece of efforts to
raise Climate Finance of $100 billion a year by 2020.
Source of funding will be through government.

Which of the following statements
regarding ‘Green Climate Fund’ is/are correct?
1) It is intended to assist the developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to
counter climate change.
2) It is founded under the aegis of UNEP, OECD, Asian Development Bank and World Bank
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Prelims 2015


How funds will be raised?
The role of the private sector.
Creation of the fund’s private sector facility (PSF)
The level of “country ownership” of resources
Transparency of the board
Failure to ban fossil fuel funding under climate finance

Adaptation committee

Adaptation fund

It was established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programs in developing
country Parties to the KP that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of CC.
It is financed from the share of proceeds on the CDM project activities and other
sources of funding.
Supervised and managed by – Adaptation Fund Board (AFB).
Upon invitation from Parties, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) provides secretariat
services to the AFB and the World Bank serves as trustee of the Adaptation Fund, both
on an interim basis.

COP 17 Durban Summit

New global climate change regime

2 demands of India – that the principle of equity remain intact in any new climate regime
and that this new global deal be launched after 2020.


New deal to be finalized by 2015 and launched by 2020
GCF launched, though empty as yet Green tech development mechanism put in place
Equity finds place back in future climate talks
Adaptation mechanism
Transparency mechanism

India’s gain and losses

Wins on all its important non-negotiables CBDR principle retained.
Secures 10 years of economic growth without carbon containment Intellectual Property
Rights (IPR) and technology not as well anchored in new deal
Loopholes for developed world not fully blocked
Agriculture brought in by developed nations under CC.

Doha outcomes COP 18, 2012

Amendments to Kyoto protocol

8 year second commitment period which started on 2013.
3 mechanisms continued – CDM, JI, IET
Access to mechanisms remains uninterrupted for all developed countries that have
accepted targets for 2
nd commitment period.
A key element was added to the measurement reporting and verification (MRV)
framework for developed countries with the adoption of the tables for the biennial
reports known as common tabular format, thereby strengthening transparency and the
accountability regime.
Surplus assigned amount units can be carried over without limit from the first to the
second commitment period of the Kyoto protocol by parties included in Annex I that
have a target for the second commitment period.

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